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src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609112178.jpg"/></p><p>"充电?quot;是困扰电动汽车市场化的关键因素之一,为解决充电难题,各方也都在探索不同的充电模式,目前已衍生出多种电能补给方案。整体而言,用充电桩充电仍是当前主流,但同时充电桩痛点的存在,也为换电、无线充电模式的出现提供了机会。对于三种电能补给模式,业界也一直在讨论:究竟哪种方案能主导未来市场?/p><p><strong>充电桩充电仍是主?/strong></p><p><strong><img width="450" height="251" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609115377.jpg"/></strong></p><p>走在北上广深的大街上,随处可见一根根充电桩立在马路边,在居民小区、大型公共设施旁边,充电桩更是整齐划一地排列着。目前,充电桩已是电动汽车车主使用最多的充电工具。据中国汽车技术研究中心(以下简?quot;中汽中心")的数据显示,截?016年底,我国已建成24万个充电桩,其中私人充电?0万个,公共充电桩14万个,数量在全球也处于领先地位。在公共充电桩中?8096个为快充桩,103158个为慢充桩?/p><p>不过,如此庞大的充电桩数量仍然无法满足消费者的充电需求,但相对此前,"充电?quot;已经缓解不少。中汽中心北京工作部产业发展环境咨询部工程师吴鹏飞说?quot;2011年我国私人电动汽车数量不多,充电桩也很少,总共?352个,桩车比约??53。截?016年底,桩车比已下降到1?14?#39;充电?#39;得到一定程度的缓解?quot;</p><p>目前,充电桩仍是各地充电基础设施建设的主要内容,如今已有80多个省市出台充电基础设施建设规划,设定了2020年充电基础设施建设目标。山东省数量最多,规划目标?0000个,目前完成率为18%。北京、上海是我国电动汽车推广最积极的两个城市,也制定了充电设施建设规划。按照北京的规划,将建设65000个充电桩,目前完成率?4%;上海的充电桩规划数量虽不及北京多,数量为28000个,但完成率却是全国最高的,目前已完成总规划数量的59%?/p><p><img width="450" height="338" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609122175.jpg"/></p><p>不过,在各种新能源汽车电能补给方案中,充电桩数量虽最多,但面临的问题也不少。中兴智能汽车副总裁田锋说:"充电桩需要占据大量的土地资源,尤其在北京、上海等大城市,城市中心地带寸土寸金,大规模建设充电桩的难度很大,即使是快充桩,车主也需要花费较长时间。而发展私人充电桩也不现实,目前我国城市居民很少拥有私人车库,私人充电桩不会是未来的发展方向?quot;</p><p>另外,我国充电桩利用率也不高,城市中心区的充电桩几乎24小时不停充电,但位置偏僻的充电桩却几乎闲置,且闲置的充电桩数量占有相当高的比例?/p><p><strong>换电有特定场景限?/strong></p><p><strong><img width="450" height="300" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609124717.jpg"/></strong></p><p>早在我国电动汽车兴起之时,就曾出现过充电与换电之争,在随后的发展中,换电模式虽落了下风,但也不乏企业在坚持推广,因为换电模式的优点很明显?/p><p>充电时间长是所有电动车车主感到头痛的问题,但是,换电模式可以在3分钟内帮助车主补充能源,与传统汽车加油时间相当。换下来的电池可以在波谷时充电,能够提高能源利用率,充电费用也低于普通充电方式?/p><p>当然,换电模式的缺点也特别突出,这也是其没有得到大规模推广的原因。换电模式必须建设换电站,换电站需要整块的土地,在城市中心区和居民小区,很难辟出一大块土地建设换电站。相比于换电站,充电桩可以利用街边的小块土地,对土地资源的要求没有换电站那么苛刻?/p><p>土地资源的限制使得换电站不可能像充电桩那样见缝插针式地随处建设,这给车主换电带来极大的不便利。北京曾建设了亚洲最大的换电站,但在五环路外,如果车主隔三差五去那里换电将是一件非常痛苦的事情?/p><p>换电模式的缺点不止一点,还存在成本、电池规格、安全性等问题?/p><p><img width="450" height="252" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609131794.jpg"/></p><p>就成本而言,一般来说,一辆电动汽车需要配?.7块电池才能满足周转需求,这使得换电模式的初期投资成本非常高,投资回收期漫长,稍有不慎很难收回投资成本?/p><p>就电池规格而言,换电模式要求电池规格统一,但我国动力电池有方形、圆柱、软包等多种形式,技术路线的差别决定了电池形态各异,统一电池规格是一件很难的事情。一位业内专家告诉记者,手机电池这么多年尚且难统一,汽车动力电池统一规格的难度可想而知。中国电动汽车充电基础设施促进联盟综合部主任张帆告诉记者,各企业生产的电池不能相互替换阻碍了换电模式的发展?/p><p>不过,统一电池规格的障碍或在明年得以清除??2日,《电动汽车用动力蓄电池产品规格尺寸》正式发布,将于2018??日执行。中汽中心汽车标准化研究所总工程师周荣说:"电池包内的单体电池千差万别,成组后的外形尺寸可以统一。统一外形尺寸能够降低企业研发费用,增强了电池的流通性?quot;</p><p>相对成本和电池规格,安全性则是人们对换电模式的最大担心。张帆说?quot;换电的电池采用卡扣固定,不如充电电池的固定牢靠,在非常极端的情况下,比如发生碰撞时容易出现电池脱落而引发事故的情况?quot;</p><p>种种缺陷导致换电模式一直难成规模,不过近年来,换电模式再次兴起,力帆汽车、北汽新能源都推出了换电车辆。吴鹏飞说:"换电模式有特定的应用场景,适合公交、出租车领域。首先,可以利用公交场站的土地资源建设换电站,解决建站难题;其次,公交车和出租车在城市运行的速度不快,安全隐患会大幅降低?quot;</p><p><strong>无线充电逐渐兴起</strong></p><p><strong><img width="450" height="252" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609134492.jpg"/></strong></p><p>便利性是消费趋势,企业的技术研发总是围绕这个趋势不断推进。从这个角度看,未来电动汽车充电将向智能充电方向发展,而无线充电恰好能够较好地满足智能充电的要求。田锋举例说,固定电话曾经非常普及,如今,移动通讯已经取代固定电话成为人们的主要通讯工具,这其中便利性是最主要的原因?/p><p>无线充电的优点不止便利性。无线充电传送器可以埋在地下,不占用城市土地资源;自动识别过往的车辆为其补充能源,使得车上的电池始终处于合理能量储存范围内;无线充电的安全性高于充电桩?/p><p>不过,在现有的技术条件下,无线充电也存在诸多问题。张帆说?quot;无线充电的使用效率仅?0%左右,与充电桩超过90%的使用效率相比还有较大差距。无线充电还存在遇到障碍物出现传输受阻的问题,充电时发热量大也是一大缺点?quot;</p><p><img width="450" height="338" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609141228.jpg"/></p><p>此外,无线充电利用电磁波传送能量,在这个过程中,电磁辐射对人体是否有伤害也是大家比较担心的问题。中国电力企业联合会标准化中心副主任刘永东告诉记者:"目前国家对于无线充电的辐射量有明确规定,这一规定可以保证无线充电辐射量在安全范围内,对此无需担心?quot;</p><p>目前来看,三种新能源汽车补能方案由于技术等方面的原因,都有其优点,但缺点也很明显,未来哪种补能方式会成为主流仍无法确定。刘永东表示,各种充电技术都有自己的应用场景,不存在谁替代谁的问题。张帆则认为,消费者的选择将决定哪种方式将成主流?/p><p><img width="300" height="300" alt="" src="http://img.yangben.cc/01/2017081609153149.jpg"/></p><p><br/></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!--咨询?-> <div id="13m8o2cp80bo" style="height:auto;"> <div id="13m8o2cp80bo" 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